To what extent are Muslim minorities represented in Western and Post-Communist legislatures? This presentation looks at Muslim minority representation in Western and Post-Communist legislatures comparatively, using descriptive statistics, as well as qualitative and historical comparisons. Muslim members of legislatures in 20 Post-Communist and 25 Western states are counted and compared to the Muslims' share of the population. The first objective is to determine the level of Muslim representation in these legislatures relative to their share of the population, which is expressed in terms of a Muslim Representation (MR) score, where 1 indicates parity, and 0 represents no Muslim representation. On average, Post-Communist countries exhibit MR scores that are about three times higher than Western countries. Muslims remain severely underrepresented in most Western legislatures, while they are almost proportionately represented in most Post-Communist ones. What explains this variation? Descriptive statistics show that forms of “consociational” power-sharing, including legacies of Communist-era affirmative action and multi-confessional power sharing as exemplified by the Dutch “pillarization” principle, and electoral systems based on proportional representation, provide the best conditions for the representation of Muslim minorities. This cross-national analysis based on 45 countries is complemented by a paired comparison of France and Russia, as the two countries with the largest Muslim minorities among Western and Post-Communist countries, respectively. This comparison sheds light on the variation and determinants of Muslim representation between Western and Post-Communist legislatures.  Finally, the problems of political engineering under conditions of proportional representation are highlighted by focusing on the case of Denmark.